Gold branded KGF 2 are the dead speaking through the block buster movie
The earliest recorded metal employed by humans appears to be gold, which can be found free or “native“. Small amounts of natural gold have been found in Spanish caves used during the late Paleolithic period, c. 40,000 BC.
The oldest known map of a gold mine was drawn in the 19th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt (1320–1200 BC), whereas the first written reference to gold was recorded in the 12th Dynasty around 1900 BC. Egyptian hieroglyphs from as early as 2600 BC describe gold, which King Tushratta of the Mitanni claimed was “more plentiful than dirt” in Egypt.
Native gold occurs as very small to microscopic particles embedded in rock, often together with quartz or sulfide minerals such as “fool’s gold”, which is a pyrite. These are called lode deposits. The metal in a native state is also found in the form of free flakes, grains or larger nuggets that have been eroded from rocks and end up in alluvial deposits called placer deposits. Such free gold is always richer at the exposed surface of gold-bearing veins, owing to the oxidation of accompanying minerals followed by weathering; and by washing of the dust into streams and rivers, where it collects and can be welded by water action to form nuggets.
FMCG Branding: Going for Gold with Fast Moving Consumer Goods
The report critically states that domestic jewellery may grow at nearly 6% in FY18-23. “Gold volume is expected to remain stable (1.5% CAGR) as unorganized jewellers increasingly get marginalized courtesy the governments push to formalize the sector,” says the report.
Report has identified jewelers such as PC Jeweller, Malabar Gold, Senco Gold, Kalyan Jewellers, GRT, Thangamayil, TBZ, Joy Alukkas, as the prominent ones from organised trade.
The research, largely based on the basis of store visits, says that Titan is currently leading the market when it comes to design, but jewellers like Joyalukkas, Kalyan Jewellers and PCJ are closer to catching up.
Here are some of the other interesting observations from this study:
Presence of the top 17 players is lower than 4% in North and West, but these top jewellers enjoy nearly 40% market share in the Southern markets.
Domestic gems & jewellery consumption is pegged at Rs 3.2 trillion, of this the domestic jewellery market itself is about at Rs 2.7 trillion (estimated to have grown at nearly 6.5% CAGR over FY11-18.)
Top 6 jewelers to corner one-third the market: The top 6 jewellers in India currently account for 4-5% of the BIS-listed stores and command nearly 20% revenue market share (RMS). Given their ambitious expansion over the next 5 years, RMS-to-store ratio is expected to expand further. We expect them to account for nearly one-third of the domestic consumption (Jewellery + Investment) in India by end of FY23.
Mining in South Africa has been a contentious issue since 15-year-old Erasmus Stephanus Jacobs discovered South Africa’s first diamond, the Eureka, in Hopetown in 1867. It kickstarted what historians call the Mineral Revolution, which made few European opportunists wealthy beyond measure, and saw hundreds of thousands of men leaving their homes to become fulltime mineworkers.
Gold in South Africa was first discovered in the late 19th century by two prospectors in a place called Witwatersrand, which triggered the 1886 Witwatersrand Gold Rush. This gold discovery was a turning point in the history of South Africa. It led to the change of the country from a principally agricultural society to grow into the world’s largest producer of gold.
This played a significant part in the development of the early Republic of South Africa. Gold mining in South Africa rapidly became the largest and most important part of the country’s economy and it is still a major contributor to its economy.
The mineworker’s plight was captured wonderfully by founding member of the African National Congress, Sol Plaatjie, in 1914. “Two hundred thousand subterranean heroes who, by day and by night, for a mere pittance lay down their lives to the familiar ‘fall of rock’ and who, at deep levels, ranging from 1 000 to 3 000 feet in the bowels of the earth, sacrifice their lungs to the rock dust which develops miners’ phthisis and pneumonia.”
South Africa was the largest producer of gold for several years before being overtaken by China in 2007. Currently, South Africa is estimated to have the largest amount of gold ore reserves in the world, representing about 40 percent of global gold reserves. However, the leading position in the production of gold has been maintained by China.
Gold is mentioned frequently in the Old Testament, starting with Genesis 2:11 (at Havilah), the story of the golden calf, and many parts of the temple including the Menorah and the golden altar. In the New Testament, it is included with the gifts of the magi in the first chapters of Matthew. The Book of Revelation 21:21 describes the city of New Jerusalem as having streets “made of pure gold, clear as crystal”. Exploitation of gold in the south-east corner of the Black Sea is said to date from the time of Midas, and this gold was important in the establishment of what is probably the world’s earliest coinage in Lydia around 610 BC. The legend of the golden fleece dating from eighth century BCE may refer to the use of fleeces to trap gold dust from placer deposits in the ancient world. From the 6th or 5th century BC, the Chu (state) circulated the Ying Yuan, one kind of square gold coin.
How did it start?
In 1848, James Wilson Marshall was a carpenter and sawmill worker who was building a water-powered sawmill for business owner John Sutter in Coloma. One day, Marshall went to a nearby river to fetch some water and discovered some tiny shiny nuggets in the river. He then showed them to Sutter and they worked out together that this was gold.
John Sutter didn’t want this to get out because he wanted to lay claim to as much land as possible to claim as much gold as he could before anyone else. However, word started to spread after a journalist called Samuel Brannan made a gold discovery of his own at Sutter’s Mill and started publicising it.
During the 1850s the population of Victoria almost trebled as gold seekers surged into Melbourne then onto the goldfields.
What happened during the Gold Rush of 1849?
Whilst the discovery of gold in California happened in 1848, the gold rush itself started in 1849 when thousands of people decided to travel to California to find their own gold and strike it rich. People who travelled by horse-drawn cart or by boat to pan or mine for gold were known as 49ers.
Because a lot of people migrated in the hopes of getting rich quick, boomtowns had to be set up for people to live. Some of those settlements were soon abandoned after the gold in the area dried up, but some towns that still exist today include San Francisco which rose from a population of 1000 people in 1848 to 25,000 a year later.
Whole industries were built around the gold rush, and because gold miners needed plenty of equipment like pans, pickaxes and shovels, many entrepreneurs profited from the sale of tools and supplies without panning for gold themselves. In truth, it tended to make people rich more often than gold mining did. A few gold miners got rich, but the majority didn’t.
By 1855, it’s estimated a total of 300,000 people made the move to California. Most were Americans but thousands of Mexicans, Chinese people, Britons and people across the world travelled to the area. It’s said that the gold rush peaked in 1852 and petered out by 1855 after most of the loose and easy to find gold was claimed.
Were there other gold rushes?
Despite being the best known gold rush, the California Gold Rush of 1849 wasn’t the only one. Two more took place at roughly the same time: the Australian gold rush which began in 1851 and later the Klondike gold rush in 1896.
The Australian gold rush of 1851 was inspired by the Californian gold rush of only a few years previous and the colonial government started offering rewards for the discovery of gold in Australia. There were many discoveries in New South Wales and Victoria in 1851, the most famous of which were Bathurst and Ophir in New South Wales, and Castlemaine and Clunes in Victoria.
Gold was discovered in the Klondike region of Yukon, Canada in 1896 by prospector George Carmack and the indigenous Skookum Jim in a place called Rabbit Creek. It was later renamed Bonanza Creek because of the gold discovery.
In total, 100,000 people tried to reach the Klondike goldfields to make their money, but only 30-40,000 reached eventually reached their destination. The gold soon dried up by 1899 and people couldn’t make a living from gold mining. Most people either moved away or found other work in the nearby towns.
Why is gold so valuable?
The Gold Rush
Some 80,000 immigrants poured into California during 1849. They came overland on the California Trail and by ship around Cape Horn or through the Panama shortcut. The majority of them came in one immense wave during mid summer, as covered wagons reached the end of the California trail. At the same time, sailing ships were docking in San Francisco, only to be deserted by sailors as well as passengers. Competition for the gold grew fierce. New methods were invented to wash more pay dirt in less time. At the same time, merchants raised the prices of mining tools, clothing, and food to astronomical levels. A miner had to find an ounce of gold a day just to break even.
Digging for gold from early dawn until dusk was backbreaking work. The hope of “striking it rich” became an obsession with many of the Forty-Niners. Stories of others who had found their fortune in gold kept driving them on. A streak of bad luck could always be followed by a rich strike.
By the 1850s miners were coming from places all over the world—Britain, Europe, China, Australia, North and South America. But gold was getting harder to find. The peak production of placer gold occurred in 1853. Every year after that, less gold was found, but more and more men were in California to share in the dwindling supply. Thousands of disillusioned gold seekers returned home with little to show for their time. They were glad to escape with their health.
Legacy of the California Gold Rush
Some weary miners, instead of heading home, took a second look at California and liked what they saw. Instead of returning home they sent for their families. These hearty pioneers found the land unbelievably productive, and ultimately California’s great wealth came not from its mines but from its farms.
For others, however, the gold rush was a catastrophe. The peaceful indigenous people were decimated. They perished in great numbers from starvation, disease, abuse, and massacre. Their society, habitat, infrastructure and culture were utterly destroyed. Other minorities suffered severe discrimination as well.
As miners continued to invent faster, more destructive methods of finding gold, the land was ravaged. Hillsides were washed away in torrents of water, and towns downstream were inundated by immense floods of mud. Water supplies were poisoned with mercury, arsenic, cyanide, and other toxins. Grand forests of oak and pine were leveled for mining timbers.
The gold discovery wrought immense changes upon the land and its people. California, with its diverse population, achieved statehood in 1850, decades earlier than it would have been without the gold. The state’s vibrant strength can be traced back to the hearty fortitude of those exuberant optimists of 1849. The independent, adventurous spirit that is such an important part of California’s economy today is a lasting reverberation of the great gold rush of 1849.
The gold licence
The colonial governments in Melbourne and Sydney imposed a licence fee to dig for gold. This licence gave a miner the right to peg out a small ‘claim’ of eight feet square (2.4m).
Licences helped the government keep track of the large number of people moving to the goldfields. They also raised money to pay for roads, administration and police.
An unfair tax
From the start miners complained that the licence was expensive and unfair, since they were required to pay whether they found gold or not. They also felt that it was unreasonable that miners were taxed when they were not represented in the government. (Because they did not own the land, the majority of the diggers did not have the right to vote or to stand for election to Victoria’s Legislative Council.)
Disaffection grew as the fees rose and policing methods became more punitive.
Gold commissioners, assisted by police, conducted regular ‘licence hunts’, often treating miners with cruelty and contempt. Assistant Commissioner Armstrong was said to beat diggers unconscious with the brass knob of his riding crop!
The monthly fee of £1 for a licence imposed great financial hardship on the average miner, who might spend long periods digging for gold without any success. As opposition grew many miners refused to buy a licence. Others simply could not afford one.
This licence, dated 1854, cost £1.
Reproduced courtesy Public Record Office Victoria
Organised resistance to the license fee spread throughout the fields, with large public meetings and demands for redress. Several petitions were collected.
This 1853 petition was signed by more than 5,000 people, including diggers at Bendigo, Ballarat, Castlemaine, McIvor (Heathcote) and Mount Alexander (Harcourt).
Reproduced courtesy State Library Victoria
(LEFT) Watercolour by Samuel Thomas Gill, 1872. Reproduced courtesy State Library Victoria
(RIGHT) Diggers licenceing [sic] Forest Creek by Samuel Thomas Gill, 1872
Watercolour reproduced courtesy State Library Victoria
Licences had to be carried at all times and there was very little leniency shown by police. Even if a miner had lost his licence, or it had been destroyed in dirty or wet working conditions, he could be fined or gaoled.
This watercolour by Samuel Thomas Gill shows two elderly men in uniform standing outside a licence tent. One has a rifle with a fixed bayonet. These ‘pensioners’ were military men who had retired from service and were recruited to help police the goldfields due to a shortage of regular officers. [Most of the police had deserted to the gold fields to try their luck – on one day in November 1851, 50 of the 55 Melbourne City Police resigned!]
Watercolour by Samuel Thomas Gill, 1872. Reproduced courtesy State Library Victoria
Resistance to the licence fee spread throughout the fields. Miners’ Associations or Leagues were formed in several of the major goldmining areas in 1853 and 1854, urging reform of the licence system and fairer administration of the goldfields.
In November 1854, at a mass rally at Bakery Hill in Ballarat, the Ballarat Reform League was formed. League members took their inspiration from the British Chartist movement, in which some of the miners had been directly involved before coming to Victoria. (The Chartist movement was a step by the new working-class, born out of the Industrial Revolution, to improve their rights and gain political representation.)
The League drafted a four-page Charter summarising its principles and demands. Demands included:
- Free and fair representation in parliament;
- Manhood suffrage;
- The removal of property qualifications for members of the Legislative Council;
- Salaries for members of parliament;
- and fixed parliamentary terms.
This Charter was presented to Governor Hotham.
Tensions come to a head
But anger grew as the colonial government refused to compromise. On 29 November 1854 a meeting at Bakery Hill in Ballarat attracted more than 10,000 angry miners. The Southern Cross (‘Eureka’) flag was flown for the first time and licences were burned. The following resolution was passed:
‘That this meeting, being convinced that the obnoxious licence fee is an imposition and an unjustifiable tax, pledged itself to take immediate steps to abolish same by at once burning all their licences. That in the event of any party being arrested for having no licence, that the united people will, under the circumstances, defend and protect them.’
On 30 November 1854 miners in Ballarat met again and elected Peter Lalor as their leader. They swore to fight together against police and military. Using timber from nearby mining shafts, they built a stockade and prepared to defend it.
On 3 December almost 300 mounted and foot troopers and police stormed the stockade. The miners were overpowered almost immediately. Some 22 diggers and six soldiers were killed.
The police arrested and detained 113 of the miners. Thirteen were taken to Melbourne to stand trial. However, many people in Victoria opposed what the government had done in Ballarat and one by one the 13 leaders of the uprising were tried by jury and acquitted.
In the aftermath of the Eureka uprising, Royal Commissioners investigated conditions on the goldfields. By April 1855, as a result of their recommendations, the government abolished the miner’s licence and introduced a miner’s right, renewable annually for £1. Although the constitution was yet to be passed, as an interim measure, twelve new seats were added to the existing Legislative Council, eight of them to represent goldfields electorates.
That it is the inalienable right of every citizen to have a voice in making the laws he is called upon to obey – that taxation without representation is tyranny.
In the language of the Charter and in its principal demands, the Ballarat Reform League drew on the immediate legacy of the Peoples’ Charter in Britain and on the rhetoric of various movements for democratic reform in Europe in the late 1840s. Its basic tenets were even older, drawing on the principles of the American and French revolutions and on even more ancient assertions of the ‘rights’ of citizens to have a voice in the way they were governed. It failed to convince Governor Hotham, however, who eventually moved against the miners in force at the Eureka Stockade.
In 2006, the Charter was inducted into the UNESCO Memory of the World register of significant historical documents.
Reproduced courtesy Public Record Office Victoria
This poster called for a meeting of Ballarat miners on 29 November 1854. The language used was strong, showing the seriousness of the miners’ grievances.
It is said that ten thousand Ballarat residents attended the meeting. While some Ballarat Reform League leaders urged the crowd to use peaceful means to achieve their aims, there were angry calls for miners to burn their gold licences. The following day, about a thousand miners began constructing a rough stockade at the Eureka diggings.
FMCG Branding: Going for Gold with Fast Moving Consumer Goods
The fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector is one of the most volatile and toughest categories in which to succeed and sometimes considered the birthplace of modern branding. The competition has always been fierce and the fight for wallet share never more challenging then it is now.
Breaking into Consumer market for Gold as a new brand can be a serious challenge, particularly when you’re up against global powerhouses that have ruled their respective niches for decades with deep pockets. Having said that though, smaller brands have more opportunities to make their impact with limited resources than they ever had before.
Aligning With And Focusing on Your Core Target Audience
Brands better be desirable to the right core target audience. You need to know your market, your competitors, and your sector’s environment intimately
Vedic society was rich and prosperous. Vedic women wore gold and silver jewellery. We have read references to gem stones as well. We have read about their dance and music. Naturally, the women would have dressed themselves for the occasion. Though Vedas are religious books, we find a lot of secular matter in them. Indian sculptures that are available from the 3rd century BCE show lot of different types of jewels. Every part of the sculpture has a jewel. When we look at Greek statues, we see bare bodies. When we look at Sumerian and Babylonian statues we see scanty jewellery. Only the Egyptian women wore some jewellery like the Hindus.
Poor Venezuelans driven to work in gold mining by the ongoing economic crisis and humanitarian emergency have become victims of macabre crimes by armed groups that control illegal mines in southern Venezuela,” said José Miguel Vivanco, Americas director at Human Rights Watch. “It is critical for gold buyers and refineries to ensure that any Venezuelan gold in their supply chains is not stained with the blood of Venezuelan victims.”
The operations of these illegal mines are also having a devastating impact on the environment and the health of workers, local sources said. Internal economic migration due to the economic and humanitarian crisis in Venezuela has increased the number of people seeking to work in mining areas. Many residents live in fear and are exposed to harsh working conditions, poor sanitation, and an extremely high risk of diseases such as malaria.
Many miners traveled abroad to find work in newly-discovered mining areas in Australia, the Americas, Africa and Asia. Their knowledge and expertise were highly sought after. Cutting edge skills and technology increased the development of mining leaving a visible mark on the landscape. Cornish Engine houses dominated the landscape on all continents. Some Miners were emigrating long before the slumps due to the premium that their Cornish mining or engineering experience could command. Without Cornish technology and experience, the Californian Gold Rush would have stalled a short way below the surface.
The armed groups, who are effectively in charge of the mines and the settlements that have grown up around them, brutally enforce their rule. “Everyone knows the rules,” one resident said. “If you steal or mix gold with another product, the pran [the syndicate leader] will beat or kill you.” Another said “They are the government there…. If you steal, they ‘disappear’ you.”
As detailed below, four residents said that they witnessed members of syndicates amputating or shooting the hands of people accused of stealing. Several other residents said they knew of cases in which syndicate members had cut offenders into pieces with a chainsaw, ax, or machete.
Residents are also exposed to mercury, which miners use to extract the gold, despite it being prohibited in Venezuela. Mercury can cause serious health problems, even in small amounts, with toxic effects on the nervous, digestive, and immune systems, and on lungs, kidneys, skin, and eyes. Studies conducted in mining areas in Bolívar many years ago already found high levels of mercury exposure, including among women and children, for whom the health risks are even higher and, for pregnant women, include serious disability or death of the fetus and, if carried to term, the child.
In addition, residents described consistently harsh working conditions in the mines, including working 12-hour shifts without any protective gear and children as young as 10 working alongside adults.
Brazil’s illegal gold rush is fueling corruption, violent crime and deforestation
- Once the epicenter of the global trade in gold, illegal mining is once again surging across the Amazon.
- Its extraction and trade is not only fueling corruption, money laundering and criminal violence – it is accelerating deforestation in the world’s largest tropical forest, says Robert Muggah, co-founder of the Igarapé Institute.
- Muggah details a range of challenges facing efforts to rein in the gold mining sector. He says political leadership is critical to make progress on the issue: “Absent political will from the top, however, Brazil’s gold chain will continue to resemble the wild west.”
Once the epicenter of the global trade in gold, illegal mining is once again surging across the Amazon. Its extraction and trade is not only fueling corruption, money laundering and criminal violence – it is accelerating deforestation in the world’s largest tropical forest.
The latest spike in wildcat mining is driven by international demand. The price of gold is up from $400 in 2000 to over $1,800 an ounce in 2022. And ground zero for the clandestine gold rush is Brazil where researchers have documented tens of thousands of small-scale miners and more than 320 illegal mines, though the real number is likely higher. Legally and illegally mined areas have expanded sixfold across Brazil between 1985 and 2020 – from 31,000 to 206,000 hectares. Today, Brazil is among the world’s top ten exporters of gold. One of the problems, however, is that a significant proportion of it is illegal.
About 15% of the world’s gold is produced by artisanal and small-scale miners, most of whom use mercury to extract it from the earth. In Indonesia, the industry supports some three million people – but the miners risk poisoning themselves, their children and the land.
Fahrul Raji, a man in his early 30s, is not feeling well. At the health centre in Kereng Pangi, a town in Central Kalimantan surrounded by goldfields, he explains his symptoms.
“I often have a headache, and I am weak. I have a bitter taste in my mouth.”
According to Dr Stephan Bose-O’Reilly, who is examining him, Fahrul is being slowly poisoned by mercury.
“Fahrul’s been working with mercury for many years, and he’s showing the typical symptoms of mercury intoxication,” says Bose-O’Reilly, a German medic who began studying the impact of mercury on Indonesians’ health a decade ago. “He also has a tremor and a co-ordination problem.”
At the end of the day, the miners arrive with their pieces of amalgam ready for smelting. Fahrul says he’s worried about the impact of mercury on his health, but he has no intention of changing his job.
“This is a family business that’s been handed down to me. My father was also a gold buyer. And he’s about 65 now, and still looks healthy.”
Even though he has symptoms, Fahrul has convinced himself that the risk he runs is small. And that is the problem with mercury – its effects are not dramatic enough, in the short term, to act as a viable deterrent.
The worst case of mass mercury poisoning the world has ever seen happened in Japan in the first half of the 20th Century.
Symptoms appeared only gradually in the fishing village of Minamata. At first, nobody could explain why people began to slur their speech, or stumbled when they walked. They would have trouble swallowing, or tremble uncontrollably. Children were born with disabilities. Thousands would die with what became known as Minamata Disease.
But it took 30 years – until the 1960s – to identify the cause of the suffering: a local plastics factory that was dumping mercury into the bay. The mercury was contaminating fish, the staple food of the local population.
If Fahrul continues to smelt mercury in his gold shop, and inhale the poisonous fumes, it is likely his symptoms will get worse. Bose-O’Reilly says his urine contains 697 micrograms of mercury per litre – far more than usual.
“This is incredibly high,” he says. “Most people would have one or two micrograms at most.”
Gold made its first appearance in Qur’anic manuscripts during the reign of the Umayyad caliphs
and his son
, famous as the patrons of the Dome of the Rock and Great Mosque of Damascus respectively. This period witnessed the codification of angular
, as seen in the inscriptions within the Dome of the Rock, as well as in Qur’anic calligraphy. At the same time, elite Umayyad patrons sponsored the production of lavish
that were sent and donated to the congregational mosques of the empire’s main cities.
Kolar Gold fields: Gold fields to Dust bowl.
Kolar gold fields was the first mining industry in Asia to get electricity in 1902.The John Taylor and Sons Company which managed KGF used steam power to run the mining machines,
On reccomendations from the then British Government in Mysore,The cauvery falls power works under Captain Lotbiniere was constituted.
The first major Hydro electric generating station for commercial use was commissiones in 1889 at Shivasamudra near Mysore.On 30th June 1902 the longest transission line at the highest voltage of 4000 HP was transmitted to KGF for the first time. This has been well recorded in the Karnataka Gazette.
A relatively rare element, gold is a precious metal that has been used for coinage, jewelry, and other arts throughout recorded history. In the past, a gold standard was often implemented as a monetary policy. Still, gold coins ceased to be minted as a circulating currency in the 1930s, and the world gold standard was abandoned for a fiat currency system after 1971.
As of 2017, the world’s largest gold producer by far was China, with 440 tonnes per year. A total of around 201,296 tonnes of gold exists above ground, as of 2020. This is equal to a cube with each side measuring roughly 21.7 meters (71 ft). The world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments and 10% in industry. Gold’s high malleability, ductility, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, and conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion-resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices (its chief industrial use). Gold is also used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, and tooth restoration. Certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine.
Think Just for once.
All the grandeur pomp glory in history of religion,king, queen,gods of the past and today.
All those we adore revere and fear, are decorated and wore gold… smeared in the blood of the dead miners? Did they…
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